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What are the structure and various models of cylindrical lithium batteries

July 29, 2022

Cylindrical lithium batteries are round lithium batteries, usually referring to cylindrical 18560 lithium batteries, which can be divided into lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, and ternary materials. Batteries of the three material systems have different advantages. Batteries are widely used in notebook computers, digital cameras, lighting fixtures, toy products, power tools, portable mobile energy and other fields.


The structure of cylindrical lithium battery


The circular lithium battery refers to the cylindrical lithium battery. The earliest cylindrical lithium battery was the 18650 lithium battery invented by the Japanese company SONY in 1992. Because the 18650 cylindrical lithium battery has a long history, the market penetration rate is very high. Cylindrical lithium batteries use a fairly mature winding process, with a high degree of automation, stable product quality and relatively low cost. There are many types of cylindrical lithium batteries, such as 14650, 17490, 18650, 21700, 26650 and so on. Cylindrical lithium batteries are more popular in Japan and South Korea lithium battery companies, and there are also quite large enterprises in China that produce cylindrical lithium batteries.


With the further expansion of the electric vehicle market and the continuous improvement of cruising range requirements, vehicle companies have put forward higher requirements for power batteries in terms of energy density, manufacturing cost, cycle life and additional attributes of products. Under the premise that there has not been a huge breakthrough in the field of raw materials, it has become an explorable direction to appropriately increase the volume of the cylindrical battery to obtain more battery capacity. At present, Tesla has started the large-scale production of 21700 batteries and plans to use them on Tesla Model 3. If they pass the test on other Tesla models, they will all replace the previously used 18650 batteries. Tesla The practice may lead a "21700 trend" in the world.


Classification of various types of cylindrical lithium batteries


1. Cylindrical primary batteries, mainly No. 5 and No. 7 batteries, other models are not introduced one by one, you can consult the manufacturer for details;


AA battery, the general size is: diameter 14mm, height 49mm;


7th battery, the general size is: diameter 11mm, height 44mm.


2. Cylindrical lithium batteries, the main models are 18650, 16650, 14500, etc.


18650 means, 18mm in diameter and 65mm in length. The AA battery model is 14500, 14 mm in diameter and 50 mm long. Generally, 18650 batteries are used more in industry, but few in civilian use. The most common ones are laptop batteries and high-end flashlights.


18650 is just the size model of the battery. According to the type of battery, it can be divided into lithium ion 18650, lithium iron phosphate 18650, nickel metal hydride 18650 (rare), and the common 18650 is lithium ion.


1. The capacity of 18650 lithium battery with large capacity is generally between 1200mah and 3400mah.


2. Long service life The 18650 lithium battery has a long service life, and the cycle life can reach more than 500 times during normal use, which is more than twice that of ordinary batteries.


3. High safety performance 18650 lithium battery has high safety performance. 18650 was born in 1996. After decades of development, 18650 lithium battery has achieved fully automated production. The voltage, internal resistance, capacity, and self-discharge consistency of the battery are very consistent. Well, it is currently the preferred model in various industries; it has good high temperature resistance, and the discharge efficiency reaches 100% under the condition of 65 degrees. In order to prevent the short circuit of the battery, the positive and negative electrodes of the 18650 lithium battery are separated. Therefore, the possibility of short-circuiting has been reduced to the extreme. A protection board can be installed to avoid overcharging and overdischarging of the battery, which can also prolong the service life of the battery.


4. High voltage The voltage of 18650 lithium battery is generally 3.6V, 3.8V and 4.2V, which is much higher than the 1.2V voltage of nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries.


5. There is no memory effect. It is not necessary to empty the remaining power before charging, which is convenient to use.


6. It can be combined in series or in parallel to form a 18650 lithium battery pack


7. Wide range of use: notebook computers, paired charging lights, solar charging lights, walkie-talkies, portable DVDs, instrumentation, audio equipment, model aircraft, toys, video cameras, digital cameras, new energy vehicles, medical industry and other electronic equipment.


8. In the case of the same brand, the price of the battery is more advantageous. The various accessories of the battery have been mature and mass-produced, and the production cost has been greatly reduced, so the cost performance is the best choice.


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