During the use of lighting fixtures and lighting circuits, the main causes of fires are as follows:
1. Too close to combustibles
The surface of the lamp will heat up when it is working. The higher the power and the longer the continuous use time, the higher the temperature will be. When its surface is too close to the combustibles or the heat dissipation is poor, the accumulated heat will burn the combustibles every minute.
2. The installation of lamps and lanterns does not meet the requirements
When ordinary lamps are used in explosive hazardous areas, the electric sparks generated by the lamps and switches may ignite explosive gas mixtures or combustible dust in the air. In addition, heat-generating components such as lamps or ballasts are directly fixed on combustibles, and the heat accumulation over a long period of time may also cause fires.
3. The quality of lamps and lanterns is unqualified
4. Lamp accessories failure
Auxiliary equipment of lamps, such as switches, lamp holders, hanging boxes and other accessories such as poor contact, loose joints and other faults, may generate electric sparks, causing fire or explosion.
5. Short circuit
First of all, if the line does not select the appropriate insulated wire according to the specific environment and requirements, it is very easy to lose its insulation ability and form a short circuit when it is corroded by high temperature, humidity, or acid and alkali. In addition, the current and voltage characteristics of LED lights are different from those of other light-emitting diodes. Similarly, current is greatly affected by voltage, so small changes in voltage can cause large changes in current. Even slightly exceeding the maximum rated voltage, the rated current can rise significantly, damaging or shorting out the LED.
Our safe distance from lamps
So how do we make it safe to use lights? In fact, the fire prevention of lighting fixtures can start from the following aspects.
1. Power supply system
① When the same power supply is used for lighting fixtures and power, the lighting power supply must not be connected after the main power switch, and should have their own branch circuits, and all lighting circuits must have short-circuit protection devices. All main lighting lines should be provided with a main switch with a protective device. In order to avoid overheating of the conductors during overload, overload protection devices should be provided for places where fire and explosion hazards and places where insulated conductors with heat-extensible outer layers are laid on building components of burning objects.
② Lighting voltage generally adopts 220V. It is strictly forbidden to use autotransformers for lighting power supply transformers below 36V. There should be a clear distinction between power sockets below 36V and above 220V, and low-voltage plugs should not be able to be inserted into higher-voltage sockets.
③Load and wire. The general requirements for the number of lighting lamps and loads are: the number of lamps in a branch circuit should not exceed 20, and the lighting current: civilian use should not exceed 15A; industrial use should not exceed 20A. The insulation resistance of wires to ground or between wires should generally not be less than 0.5 megohms.
Selection of lamps
①Explosion-proof lamps should be used in places with explosive mixtures or explosive media in production; and the levels of explosion-hazardous places are different. For different hazard levels, different types of explosion-proof lighting should be selected.
② For places with corrosive gas and special humidity, sealed lamps should be used, and various parts of the lamps should be treated with anticorrosion.
③Closed lamps are used in humid workshops and outdoors, and open lamps with waterproof lamp holders can also be used. Spotlights are used in hot and dusty places.
④ For places that may be directly damaged by external machinery, lamps with protective nets (covers) should be used.
⑤Lamps in vibrating places (such as forging hammers, air compressors, bridge cranes, etc.) should have anti-vibration measures (such as flexible connections such as hanging chains).
3. Selection of lamp installation location
①The distance between lamps and combustibles should not be less than 50cm (halogen tungsten lamps must be greater than 50cm), and the height from the ground should not be lower than 2m. When it is lower than this height, protective facilities should be installed. Combustible items should not be piled under the bulb. The protective cover of the lamp must be intact, and it is strictly forbidden to cover the lamp with paper, cloth or other combustible materials.
② There should be good heat dissipation conditions around the concealed lamps and their heating accessories, and keep them well ventilated.
③Lighting fixtures outdoor or in some special places should have anti-splash facilities to prevent water droplets from splashing on the surface of the high-temperature bulb and causing the bulb to burst. After the bulb breaks, it should be replaced in time.
④ A certain space should be kept above the lamps concealed in the combustible ceiling to facilitate heat dissipation. In addition, non-combustible materials (asbestos board or asbestos cloth) should be used around the concealed lamps and their heating accessories for fireproof and heat insulation treatment, otherwise the combustible materials should be painted with fireproof paint.
⑤ The lighting current should have its own branch circuits, and each branch circuit should be equipped with short-circuit protection facilities. The number of lamps in a branch circuit should not exceed 20.
⑥ Strict lighting voltage level and load capacity. Pay attention to insulation strength and cross-section specifications when selecting wires. You should choose wire cross-sections that are 1.5-2 times larger than the rated current.
⑦ The ballast matches the voltage and capacity of the lamp. When installing the ballast, attention should be paid to ventilation and heat dissipation, and the ballast is not allowed to be directly fixed on the combustible material, otherwise it should be isolated with non-combustible heat insulation material.
① Fire prevention measures such as heat insulation and heat dissipation should be taken when switches, sockets and lighting fixtures are close to combustibles.
② The lead-in wires of tungsten-halogen lamps and incandescent bulbs with a rated power not less than 100W, such as ceiling lamps, recessed lamps, and recessed lamps, should use non-combustible materials such as porcelain tubes and mineral wool for heat insulation protection.
③Incandescent lamps, halogen tungsten lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps, fluorescent high-pressure mercury lamps (including inductive ballasts) with a rated power of not less than 60W should not be directly installed on combustible objects or take other fire prevention measures.
④Low-temperature lighting fixtures should be used in combustible material warehouses, and fire prevention measures such as heat insulation should be taken for the heating parts of the lighting fixtures, and high-temperature lighting fixtures such as tungsten halogen lamps should not be used.
⑤ Evacuation lighting fixtures should be installed on the top of the exit, the upper part of the wall or on the ceiling; spare lighting fixtures should be installed on the upper part of the wall or on the ceiling.
⑥ Non-explosion-proof lighting fixtures can be used for lighting fixtures outside the explosion hazard area in the refueling station. The lamps under the canopy in the non-explosive hazardous area shall choose the lighting lamps with a protection level not lower than IP44.
⑦ The material adjacent to the exhibition stand and high-temperature lighting fixtures such as tungsten-halogen lamps shall adopt grade A decoration materials.
⑧When the high-temperature parts of lighting fixtures, electrical equipment and lines are close to non-A-grade decoration materials or components, fire protection measures such as heat insulation and heat dissipation should be taken, and the distance from curtains, curtains, curtains, soft bags and other decoration materials should not Less than 500mm; Lighting decorations should be made of materials not lower than B1 grade.
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